Simply put, translation is transferring a message expressed in one language into another language without losing or adding any shades of meaning. More technically, translation refers to written messages. Interpretation refers to oral language or sign language (such as ASL and LSQ). Interpretation is also broken down into simultaneous and consecutive interpretation. Terminology can be descriptive (researching what things are actually called) or prescriptive (coming up with new terms for new realities).
Translation and interpretation are among the oldest professions in the world. As long as there have been people who spoke different languages, interpreters and translators have been there to allow them to interact. International commerce and sharing of knowledge and technology would be impossible without translation and interpretation.